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Version: 0.5.1

Gravitino Glossary

Apache Hadoop

  • An open-source distributed storage and processing framework.

Apache Hive

  • An open-source data warehousing and SQL-like query language software project for managing and querying large datasets.

Apache Iceberg

  • An open-source, versioned table format for large-scale data processing.

Apache License version 2

  • A permissive, open-source software license written by The Apache Software Foundation.


  • Application Programming Interface, defining the methods and protocols for interacting with a server.

Authentication mechanism

  • The method used to verify the identity of users and clients accessing a server.


  • Amazon Web Services, a cloud computing platform provided by Amazon.

AWS Glue

  • A compatible implementation of the Hive Metastore Service (HMS).

Binary distribution package

  • A package containing the compiled and executable version of the software, ready for distribution and deployment.


  • A collection of metadata from a specific metadata source.

Catalog provider

  • The specific system or technology used to store and manage metadata catalogs.


  • The individual fields or attributes of a table, specifying details such as name, data type, comment, and nullability.

Continuous integration (CI)

  • The practice of automatically building, testing, and validating code changes when they are committed to version control.

Contributor covenant

  • A widely-used and recognized code of conduct for open-source communities. It provides guidelines for creating a welcoming and inclusive environment for all contributors.


  • External libraries or modules required by a project for its compilation and features.


  • A packaged and deployable version of the software.


  • A platform for developing, shipping, and running applications in containers.

Docker container

  • A lightweight, standalone, executable package that includes everything needed to run a piece of software, including the code, runtime, libraries, and system tools.

Docker Hub

  • A cloud-based registry service for Docker containers, allowing users to share and distribute containerized applications.

Docker image

  • A lightweight, standalone, and executable package that includes everything needed to run a piece of software, including the code, runtime, libraries, and system tools.

Docker file

  • A configuration file used to create a Docker image, specifying the base image, dependencies, and commands for building the image.

Dropwizard Metrics

  • A Java library for measuring the performance of applications and providing support for various metric types.

Amazon Elastic Block Store (EBS)

  • A scalable block storage service provided by Amazon Web Services.

Environment variables

  • Variables used to pass information to running processes.


  • The distribution of data or services across multiple geographic locations.


  • A web-based platform for version control and collaboration using Git.

GitHub Actions

  • A continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) service provided by GitHub, used for automating build, test, and deployment workflows.

GitHub labels

  • Tags assigned to GitHub issues or pull requests for organization, categorization, or workflow automation.

GitHub pull request

  • A proposed change to a repository submitted by a user through the GitHub platform.

GitHub repository

  • The location where GitHub stores a project's source code and related files.

GitHub workflow

  • A series of automated steps defined in a YAML file that runs in response to events on a GitHub repository.


  • A version control system used for tracking changes and collaborating on source code.


  • Gnu Privacy Guard or GnuPG, an open-source implementation of the OpenPGP standard, used for encrypting and signing files and emails.


  • A build automation tool for building, testing, and deploying projects.


  • A Gradle wrapper script, used for executing Gradle commands without installing Gradle separately.


  • An open-source software platform created by Datastrato for high-performance, geo-distributed, and federated metadata lakes. Designed to manage metadata directly in different sources, types, and regions, providing unified metadata access for data and AI assets.

Gravitino configuration file (gravitino.conf)

  • The configuration file for the Gravitino server, located in the conf directory. It follows the standard property file format and contains settings for the Gravitino server.


  • Cryptographic hash values generated from the contents of a file, often used for integrity verification.


  • HDFS (Hadoop Distributed File System) is an open-source, distributed file system and a key component of the Apache Hadoop ecosystem. It is designed to store and process large-scale datasets, providing high reliability, fault tolerance, and performance for distributed storage solutions.


  • A system without a graphical user interface.

HTTP port

  • The port number on which a server listens for incoming connections.

Iceberg Hive catalog

  • The Iceberg Hive catalog is a specialized metadata service designed for the Apache Iceberg table format, allowing external systems to interact with Iceberg metadata via a Hive metastore thrift client.

Iceberg REST catalog

  • The Iceberg REST Catalog is a specialized metadata service designed for the Apache Iceberg table format, allowing external systems to interact with Iceberg metadata via a RESTful API.

Iceberg JDBC catalog

  • The Iceberg JDBC Catalog is a specialized metadata service designed for the Apache Iceberg table format, allowing external systems to interact with Iceberg metadata using JDBC (Java Database Connectivity).

Identity fields

  • Fields in tables that define the identity of the table, specifying how rows in the table are uniquely identified.

Integration tests

  • Tests designed to ensure the correctness and compatibility of software when integrated into a unified system.

IP address

  • Internet Protocol address, a numerical label assigned to each device participating in a computer network.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)

  • Java Database Connectivity, an API for connecting Java applications to relational databases.

Java Development Kits (JDKs)

  • Software development kits for the Java programming language, including tools for compiling, debugging, and running Java applications.

Java Toolchain

  • A feature introduced in Gradle to detect and manage JDK versions.


  • The JDBC connection address specified in the catalog configuration, including details such as the database type, host, port, and database name.


  • Java Management Extensions provides tools for managing and monitoring Java applications.


  • JavaScript Object Notation, a lightweight data interchange format.

JWT(JSON Web Token)

  • A compact, URL-safe means of representing claims between two parties.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM)

  • A virtual machine that enables a computer to run Java applications, providing an abstraction layer between the application and the underlying hardware.

JVM metrics

  • Metrics related to the performance and behavior of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), including memory usage, garbage collection, and buffer pool metrics.

JVM instrumentation

  • The process of adding monitoring and management capabilities to the Java Virtual Machine, allowing for the collection of performance metrics.

Key pair

  • A pair of cryptographic keys, including a public key used for verification and a private key used for signing.

KEYS file

  • A file containing public keys used to sign previous releases, necessary for verifying signatures.


  • Lakehouse refers to a modern data management architecture that combines elements of data lakes and data warehouses. It aims to provide a unified platform for storing, managing, and analyzing both raw unstructured data (similar to data lakes) and curated structured data.


  • A list of files and associated metadata that collectively define the structure and content of a release or distribution.

Merge operation

  • A process in Iceberg that involves combining changes from multiple snapshots into a new snapshot.


  • The top-level container for metadata.


  • A central repository that stores metadata for a data warehouse.


  • A distinct and separable part of a project.


  • A tool mentioned as an alternative to Docker for macOS when running Gravitino integration tests.

Open authorization / OAuth

  • A standard protocol for authorization that allows third-party applications to access user data without exposing user credentials.

PGP Signature

  • A digital signature generated using the Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) algorithm, confirming the authenticity of a file.

Private key

  • A confidential key used for signing, decryption, or other operations that should remain confidential.


  • Configurable settings and attributes associated with catalogs, schemas, and tables, to influence their behavior and storage.

Protocol buffers (protobuf)

  • A method developed by Google for serializing structured data, similar to XML or JSON. It is often used for efficient and extensible communication between systems.

Public key

  • A openly shared key used for verification, encryption, or other operations intended for public knowledge.

Representational State Transfer (REST)

  • A set of architectural principles for designing networked applications.

REST API (Representational State Transfer Application Programming Interface)

  • A set of rules and conventions for building and interacting with web services using standard HTTP methods.


  • An open source key-value pair storage database.


  • A logical container for organizing tables in a database.

Secure Shell (SSH)

  • Secure Shell, a cryptographic network protocol used for secure communication over a computer network.

Security group

  • A virtual firewall for your instance to control inbound and outbound traffic.


  • A Serialization/Deserialization library responsible for transforming data between a tabular format and a format suitable for storage or transmission.

SHA256 checksum

  • A cryptographic hash function used to verify the integrity of files.

SHA256 checksum file

  • A file containing the SHA256 hash value of another file, used for verification purposes.


  • A point-in-time capture of the state of an Iceberg table, representing a specific version of the table.

Sort order

  • The arrangement of data within a Hive table, specified by expression or direction.


  • A tool or process used to enforce code formatting standards and apply automatic formatting to code.

Structured Query Language (SQL)

  • A programming language used to manage and manipulate relational databases.


  • A structured set of data elements stored in columns and rows.


  • A token in the context of computing and security commonly refers to a small, indivisible unit of data. Tokens play a crucial role in various domains, including authentication, authorization, and cryptographic systems.

Thrift protocol

  • The network protocol used for communication with Hive Metastore Service (HMS).


  • A query engine for big data processing.

Trino connector

  • A connector module for integrating Gravitino with Trino.

Trino Gravitino connector documentation

  • Documentation providing information on using the Trino connector to access metadata in Gravitino.


  • A Linux distribution based on Debian, widely used for cloud computing and servers.

Unit test

  • A type of testing where individual components or functions of a program are tested to ensure they work as expected in isolation.


  • Uniform Resource Identifier, a string that identifies the name or resource on the internet.


  • The process of confirming the authenticity and integrity of a release by checking its signature and associated hashes.


  • A graphical interface accessible through a web browser.


  • YAML Ain't Markup Language, a human-readable data serialization format often used for configuration files.